A Baker’s cyst is a small lump (filled with synovial fluid) located on the back of the leg under the knee. Obese people and those who are particularly exposed to sports, as well as suffering from other diseases of the joints (i.e. gout).
Baker’s cyst is not neoplastic. It occurs as a result of:
The appearance of a lump under the knee is accompanied by difficulty in bending the leg in the knee (incomplete bending) and occurrence of:
In the case of large cysts, the patient may suffer from severe numbness of the calf muscles, caused by pressing of the nodule on nerves and blood vessels running in its area or rupturing and pouring out the contents into surrounding tissues.
The early stage of ailments development – when the lump is small and does not restrict the mobility of the joint of a knee is the moment when conservative treatment can be implemented, consisting in limiting of exercise and relieving the knee joint. And also on the application of physiotherapeutic treatment, such as cryotherapy, iontophoresis, magnetic field or using ultrasound or laser. Manual therapy is also helpful.
Qualification for the procedure takes place after consultation with the orthopedist who, after detailed diagnostics and performing imaging tests, a patient may be reffered for cyst resection. Before the procedure, it is necessary to perform basic tests, such as:
Unfortunately, Baker’s cyst is a condition with a high relapse rate – reaching even 60–70%, regardless of the method of its removal. Severe cases require surgery. This happens when the cyst reaches considerable size, it is associated with severe pain and causes knee joint disfunction. The operation to remove the cyst is performed under general anesthesia. It is based on surgical removal of the cystic lesion and careful stitching of the junction of the cyst with knee joint.
Cysts can be removed by endoscopic / arthroscopic method – allowing for less invasive treatment interfering with the body and for faster convalescence. It is combined with the treatment of comorbidities- intra-articular diseases, and additionally reduces the number of relapses. The method of treatment is decided by an attending physician during diagnosis and consultation.